The Red Fort
Shahjahan transferred his capital from Agra to Delhi and ordered the foundations of Shahjahanabad in 1638, the seventh town of Delhi. it's closed in by a trash fencing, with bastions, gates and wickets at intervals. Of its fourteen gates, the necessary ones ar the Mori, Lahori, Ajmeri, Turkman, Kashmiri and Delhi gates, a number of that have already been razed. His notable bastion, the Lal-Qila, or the Red Fort, lying at the town's northern endwise the proper bank or the Yamuna and south of Salimgarh, was begun in 1639 and completed when 9 years. The Red Fort is totally different from the Agra fort and is healthier planned, as a result of at its back lies the expertise gained by Shahjahan at Agra, and since it had been the work of 1 hand. it's associate degree irregular polygonal shape, with 2 long sides on the east and west, and with 2 main gates, one on the west and therefore the different on the south, known as Lahori and Delhi gates severally. whereas the walls, gates and a couple of different structures within the fort ar made of red arenaceous rock, marble has been mostly employed in the palaces.
From the western entry when passing through the rounded arcade, known as Chhatta-Chowk, one reaches the Naubat- or Naqqar-Khana ('Drum-house'), wherever ceremonial music was vie and that conjointly served because the entrance to the Diwan-i-'Am. Its higher floor is currently occupied by the Indian War Memorial depository.
The Diwan-i-' Am ('Hall of Public Audience') could be a rectangular hall, 3 aisle deep, with a façade of 9 arches. At the rear of the hall is associate degree recess, wherever the royal throne stood below a marble cover, with associate degree decorated marble dias below it for the prime minister. The wall behind the throne is decorated with lovely panels of pietra meninges work, aforesaid to possess been dead by state capital DE Bordeaux, a Florentine creative person. mythical being together with his lute is described in one in every of the panels here. Originally there have been six marble palaces on the jap water front. Behind the Diwan-i-' Am however separated by a court is that the Rang-Mahal ('Painted Palace'), thus known as thanks to colored decoration on its interior. It consists of a main hall with associate degree arched front, with rounded chambers on either finish. A water-channel, known as the Nahr-i-Bihisht ('Stream of Paradise'), dried-up through it, with a central marble basin fitted with associate degree ivory fountain. The Mumtaz-Mahal, originally a very important lodging within the imperial quarters, currently homes the Delhi Fort depository.
The Diwan-i-Khass ('Hall of personal Audience') could be a highly-ornamented columned hall, with a flat ceiling supported on engrailed arches. The lower portion of its piers is decorated with floral pietra meninges panels, whereas the higher portion was originally gilded and painted. Its marble dias is claimed to possess supported the notable Peacock Throne, frantic by the Persian trespasser Nadir Shah.
The Tasbih-Khana ('chamber for numeration beads for personal prayers') consists of 3 rooms, behind that is that the Khwabgah ('sleeping-chamber'). On the northern screen of the previous could be a illustration of the Scales of Justice, that ar suspended over a crescent amidst stars and clouds. contiguous the jap wall of the Khwabgah is that the octangular Muthamman-Burj, from wherever the emperor appeared before his subjects each morning. alittle balcony, that comes from the Burj, was value-added here in 1808 by Akbar Shah II, and it had been from this balcony that King King of Great Britain and Queen Mary appeared before the folks of Delhi in Dec 1911.
The Hammam ('Bath') consists of 3 main residences divided by corridors. the complete interior, as well as the ground, is constructed of marble and decorated with colored stones. The baths were supplied with 'hot and cold water’, and it's aforesaid that one in every of the fountains within the eastmost lodging emitted perfume. To the west of the Hammam is that the Moti-Masjid ('Pearl Mosque'), value-added later by Aurangzeb. The Hayat-Bakhsh-Bagh ('Life-giving garden'), with its pavilions, lies to the north of the place of worship, and was later significantly altered and reconstructed. The red-stone tent within the middle of the tank within the centre of the Hayat-Bakhsh-Bagh is named Zafar-Mahal and was designed by Bahadur Shah II in concerning 1842.
In 1644, Shahjahan commenced in Delhi his nice place of worship, the Jami'- mosque the most important place of worship in Republic of India, and completed it in 1650. Its sq. quadrangle with arched cloisters on the perimeters and a tank within the centre is one hundred m. wide. designed on a raised pedestal, it's 3 imposing gateways approached by long flights of steps. Its prayer-hall, with a facade of 11 arches, flanked by a four-storeyed tower on either finish, is roofed by 3 massive domes decorated with alternating stripes of 'black and white marble.